Advanced Shipping and Ocean Engineering                    
Advanced Shipping and Ocean Engineering(ASOE)
Frequency: Quarterly
Structural Health Monitoring Data Transmission for Composite Hydrokinetic Turbine Blades
Full Paper(PDF, 389KB)
A health monitoring approach is investigated for hydrokinetic turbine blades. In-service monitoring is critical due to the difficult environment for blade inspection and the cost of inspection downtime. Composite blade designs provide a medium for embedding sensors into the blades for in-situ health monitoring. The major challenge with in-situ health monitoring is transmission of sensor signals from the remote rotating reference frame of the blade to the system monitoring station. In the presented work, a novel system for relaying in-situ blade health measurements in hydrokinetic systems is described and demonstrated. An ultrasonic communication system is used to transmit sensor data underwater from the rotating frame of the blade to a fixed relay station. Data are then broadcast via radio waves to a remote monitoring station. Results indicate that the assembled system can transmit simulated sensor data with an accuracy of ±5% at a maximum sampling rate of 500 samples/sec. A power investigation of the transmitter within the blade shows that continuous max-sampling operation is only possible for short durations (~days), and is limited due to the capacity of the battery power source. However, intermittent sampling, with long periods between samples, allows for the system to last for very long durations (~years). Finally, because the data transmission system can operate at a high sampling rate for short durations or at a lower sampling rate/higher duty cycle for long durations, it is well-suited for short-term prototype and environmental testing, as well as long-term commercially-deployed hydrokinetic machines.
Keywords:Marine Energy; Hydrokinetic Energy; Structural Health Monitoring; Acoustic Communication
Author: A. Heckman1, J. L. Rovey1, K. Chandrashekhara1, S. E. Watkins2, D. S. Stutts1, A. Banerjee3, R. S. Mishra4
1.Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, 65409, USA
2.Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, 65409, USA
3.Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania,18015 USA
4.Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, 76203, USA
  1. Khan, M. J., Bhuyan, G., Iqbal, M. T., Quaicoe, J. E., “Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems and assessment of horizontal and vertical axis turbines for river and tidal applications: A technology status review,” Applied Energy, Vol. 86, pp. 1823-1835, 2009.
  2. Khan, M. J., Iqbal, M. T., Quaicoe, J. E., “River current energy conversion systems: Progress, prospects and challenges,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, pp. 2177-2193, 2008.
  3. Previsic, M., “System Level Design, Performance, Cost and Economic Assessment - Alaska River In-Stream Power Plants,” EPRI RP 006 Alaska Electric Power Research Institute, Oct. 31, 2008.
  4. “Hydrokinetic Electric Power Generation,” Climate TechBook, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Dec. 2009.
  5. Walford, C. A., “Wind Turbine Reliability: Understanding and Minimizing Wind Turbine Operation and Maintenance Costs,” Sandia Report SAND2006-1100, Prepared by Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Mar. 2006.
  6. “Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies, ” U.S. Dept. of Energy, Dec. 2009.
  7. Sale, M. J., Cada, G. F., Acker, T. L., Carlson, T., Dauble, D. D., Hall, D. G., “DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006,” ORNL/TM-2006/97, U.S. Dept. of Energy, July 2006.
  8. Cada, G., Ahlgrimm, J., Bahleda, M., Bigford, T., Stavrakas, S. D., Hall, D., Moursund, R., Sale, M., “Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic environments,” Fisheries, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 174-181, April 2007.
  9. Coutant, C. C., Cada., G. F., “What?s the future of instream hydro?,” Hydro Review XXIV, Vol. 6, pp. 42-49, 2005.
  10. Dutton, A. G., Blanch, M. J., Vionis, P., Lekou, D., Delft, D. R. V. v., Joosse, P. A., Anastassopoulos, A., Kouroussis, D., Kossivas, T., Philippidis, T. P., Assimakopoulou, T. T., Fernando, G., Doyle, C., Proust, A., “Acoustic Emission Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Rotor Blades: Laboratory Certification Testing to Large Scale In-Service Deployment,” European Wind Energy Conference -EWEC, Madrid, Spain, 2003.
  11. M.J.Blanch, A.G.Dutton, “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Field Tests of an operating Wind Turbine,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 245-246, pp. 475-482, July 2003.
  12. Ciang, C. C., Lee, J.-R., Bang, H.-J., “Structural health monitoring for a wind turbine system: a review of damage detection methods,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 19, pp. 122001, 2008.
  13. Akyildiz, I. F., Pompili, D., Melodia, T., “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 3, pp. 257-279, 2005.
  14. Robison, K., Watkins, S. E., Nicholas, J., Chandrashekhara, K., Rovey, J. L., “Instrumented Composite Turbine Blade for Health Monitoring,” Paper 8347-93, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, Non-destructive Evaluation, and Health Monitoring Conference, San Diego, CA, Mar. 11-15, 2012.
  15. Watkins, S. E., Robison, K., Nicholas, J., Taylor, G. A., Chandrashekhara, K., Rovey, J. L., “Damage Assessment of Hydrokinetic Composite Turbine Blades Using Fiber Optic Sensors,” SPIE-86942B, SPIE Smart Structures/NDE Conference, San Diego, CA, Mar. 10-14, 2013.
  16. H. C. Pumphrey, L. A. Crum and L. Bjorno, “Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall,” JASA, vol 4, no. 4, April 1989.
  17. R. B. Mitsen, “Underwater Noise of Research Vessels: Review and Recommendations,” International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 1995.
  18. M. A. Ainslie, J. G. McColm, “A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in seawater,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol 103, no. 3, March 1998
  19. S. Mukherji, N. Kolekar, A. Banerjee, R. Mishra, “Numerical investigation and evaluation of optimum hydrodynamic performance of a horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbine,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 3, 063105 (2011).