International Journal of Environmental Protection          
An Open Access Journal
ISSN: 2226-6437(Print)      ISSN: 2224-7777(Online)
Frequency: Annually
Editorial-in-Chief: Prof. Kevin Mickus,
Missouri University of Science & Technology, USA.
Phytoaccumulation of Arsenic from Arsenic Contaminated Soils by Eichhornia Crassipes L., Echinochloa Crusgalli L. and Monochoria Hastata L. in Bangladesh
Full Paper(PDF, 115KB)
Arsenic (As) phytoaccumulation study was conducted with three plant species namely Eichhornia crassipes L. (water hyacinth), Echinochloa crusgalli L. (barnyard grass) and Monochoria hastata L. (water taro) in crop land soils contaminated by naturally and artificially from sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). Phytoaccumulation of As increased significantly with increasing soil As levels. In artificially As contaminated soils, highest As concentration was recorded in water hyacinth (67.9 and 46.83 mg kg-1 root and shoot, respectively) followed by water taro and barnyard grass at 100 mg As kg-1 treated soil. For naturally As contaminated soils, the highest accumulation of As in barnyard grass (56.93 and 26.50 mg kg-1 root and shoot, respectively) followed by water taro and water hyacinth in Paranpur soils (116 mg As kg-1 soil). The enrichment factor of arsenic in both artificially and naturally arsenic contaminated soils, root and shoot parts of these plant species were found to be in the sequence of soil root shoot. In most cases, arsenic translocation factor of soil to root and root to shoot is 0.5 to 1.0 indicated that main application of these plants is for arsenic phytoaccumulation from soil. Highest bio-concentration factor (2300) values were found in barnyard grass root than water taro (2184.55) and water hyacinth (1336.36) and this values always 10 times higher (293-2300) in the plant parts grown in the contaminated site compare to uncontaminated site. Current study revealed that, these plant species can be used as arsenic accumulator in arsenic contaminated soils.
Keywords:Arsenic; Contamination; Bio-concentration Factor; Phytoaccumulation; Soil.
Author: Md. Shariful Islam1, Md. Wahid-Uz-Zaman2, Md. Mokhlesur Rahman2
1.Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh
2.Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
  1. Alvarado, S., Guedez, M., Lue-Meru, M.P., Nelson, G., Alvaro, A., Jesus, A.C., Gyula, Z. Arsenic removal from waters by bioremediation with the aquatic plants water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor). Bioresour. Technol. 99, 8436–8440(2008).
  2. Anawar H.M., Sanchez A.C., Murciego A. and Buyolo T. Exposure and bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils from the La Parrilla mine, Spain. Environ Geol, 50:170-179(2006).
  3. Arif, M. I. Arsenic in food chain due to arsenic contaminated groundwater, MS Thesis, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh (2001).
  4. Barman, S.C. and S.K. Bhargava. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plants in industrially polluted fields, (In Paul N Cheremissinoff (Ed.), Ecological issues and Environmental Impact Assessment, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, USA. pp. 289-314(1997).
  5. Barman, S.C., R.K. Sahu, S.K. Bhargava and C. Chatterjee, Distribution of heavy metals in wheat, mustard and weed grains irrigated with industrial effluents. Bull. Environ. Conta. Toxicol., 64, 489-496(2000).
  6. Bindu T, A M. M. Sumi and A E. V. Ramasamy. Decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals with Taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultured in a hydroponic NFT system. Environmnetalist, 30:35-44(2010).
  7. Bruce, S.L., Noller, B.N., Grigg, A.H., Mullen, B.F., Mulligan, D.R., Ritchie, P.J., Currey, N., Ng, J.C. A field study conducted at Kidston gold mine, to evaluate the impact of arsenic and zinc from mine tailing to grazing cattle. Toxicol. Lett. 137, 23–34(2003).
  8. Bech J. C., Poschenrieder, M. Llugany, J. Barcelo, P. Tume, F.J. Toloias. As and heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetation around a copper mine in Northern Peru. Sci. Total Environ. 203, 83–91(1997).
  9. Christen Kris. Chickens, manure, and arsenic Environ. Sci. Technol., 35 (9), pp 184A–185A (2001).
  10. Ebel, M., Evangelou, M.W.H., Schaeffer, A. Cyanide phytoremediation by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes). Chemosphere 66, 816–823 (2007).
  11. D hankher O.P., Yujing Li, Barry P. Rosen, Jin Shi, David Salt, Julie F. Senecoff, Nupur A. Sashti & Richard B. Meagher. Engineering tolerance and hyperaccumulation of arsenic in plants by combining arsenate reductase andγ-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. NatureBiotechnology 20, 1140 – 1145 (2002).
  12. Duxbury, J., Mayer, A., Lauren, J., Hassan, N. Food chain aspects of arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: effects on quality and productivity of rice. J. Environ. Sci. Health A Toxic/Hazard. Subs. Environ. Eng. 38, 61–69 (2003).
  13. Giraldo, E., Garzon, A. The potential for water hyacinth to improve the quality of Bogota River water in the Muna reservoir: comparison with the performance of waste stabilization ponds. Water Sci. Technol. 45 (1), 103–110(2002).
  14. Giri, A.K. and Patel, R.K. Toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of Cr (VI) and Hg (II) on differential concentration by Eichhornia crassipes in hydroponic culture. Water Science & Technology 63(5), 899-907 (2011).
  15. Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons. New York, p. 680 (1984).
  16. Gulz P.A., S.K. Gupta, R. Schulin. Arsenic accumulation of common plants from contaminated soils. Plant soil 272, 337-347(2005).
  17. Gupta, S., S. Nayek, R.N. Saha and S. Satpati. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory. Environ. Geol. 55, 731-739(2008).
  18. Hoffmann, T., Kutter, C., Santamaria, J. Capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to tolerate and accumulate As and Pb. Eng. Life Sci. 4, 61–65 (2004).
  19. Hossain, M.M., Sattar, M.A., Hashem, M.A. and Islam, M.R. Arsenic contamination in some selected soils of Bangladesh. Online Journal of Biological Science. 1(10): 989-992 (2001).
  20. Jack C. N. Environmental contamination of arsenic and its toxicological impact on humans. Environ. Chem. 2, 146–160 (2005).
  21. Kisku, G.C., S.C. Barman and S.K. Bhargava. Contamination of soil and plants with potentially toxic elements irrigated with mixed industrial effluent and its impact on the environment. Water Air Soil Pollut., 120, 121-137(2000).
  22. Koe T. De. Agrostic castellana and Agrostis delicatula on heavy metal and arsenic enriched sites in NE Portugal. Sci. Total Environ. 145, 103–109(1994).
  23. Ma L.Q., K.M. Komar, C. Tu, W. Zhang, Y. Cai, E.D. Kennelley. A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic. Nature. 409, 579 (2001).
  24. Mandal B.K., Chowdhury T.R., Samanta G., Basu G., Chowdhury P.P., Chanda R. et al. Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India – The biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Curr. Sci. 70, 976–986(1996).
  25. Marin A. R. , P. H. Masscheleyn and W. H. Patrick. The influence of chemical form and concentration of arsenic on rice growth and tissue arsenic concentration. Plant and Soil, 139 (2):175-183(1992).
  26. Mishra, V., Upadhyay, A., Pathak, V., Tripathi, B. Phytoremediation of mercury and arsenic from tropical opencast coalmine effluent through naturally occurring aquatic macrophytes. Water Air Soil Pollut. 192, 303–314 (2008).
  27. Mitra, N. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soils by naturally grown weeds, M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh (2004).
  28. Meharg, A.A., Hartley-Whitaker, J. Arsenic uptake and metabolism in arsenic resistant and nonresistant plant species. New Phytol. 154, 29–43 (2002).
  29. Mishra, V.K., and B.D. Tripathi. Concurrent removal and accumulation of heavy metals by the three aquatic macrophytes. Bioresource Technology 99: 7091–7097(2008).
  30. Mishra, V.K., B.D. Tripathi, and K.H. Kim. Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent. Journal of Hazardous Materials 172:749–754 (2009).
  31. Mufarrege, M.M., H.A. Hadad, and M.A. Maine. Response of Pistia stratiotes to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, and Zn) and phosphorous. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 58: 53–61(2010).
  32. Murakami M. and Ae N. Potential of phytoextraction of copper, lead and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.). J. Hazard. Mater. 162, 1185–1192 (2009).
  33. Onken, B.M and Hossner, L.R. Determination of arsenic species in soil solution under flooded conditions. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 60, pp. 1385–1392 (1996).
  34. Petrick, J.S., Ayala-Fierro, F., Cullen, W.R., Carter, D.E., Vasken Aposhian, H. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA-III) is more toxic than arsenite in change human hepatocytes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 163, 203–207 (2000).
  35. Pickering I. J., R. C. Prince, M. J. George, R. D. Smith, G. N.George, D. E. Salt. Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian Mustard. Plant Physiol. 122(4), 1171-1178(2000).
  36. Paiva, B.L., J.G. de Oliveira, R.A. Azevedo, D.R. Ribeiro, M.G. da Silva, and A.P. Vito´ria. Ecophysiological responses of water hyacinth exposed to Cr3+ and Cr6+. Environmental and Experimental Botany 65: 403–409(2009).
  37. Patrick R. Baldwin and David J. Butcher. Phytoremediation of arsenic by two hyperaccumulators in a hydroponic environment. Microchemical Journal, 85:297-300(2007).
  38. Raab A., H. Schat, A.A. Meharg and J. Feldmann. Uptake, translocation and transformation of arsenate and arsenite in sunflower (Helianthus annuus)–Part 1: formation of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes during exposure to high arsenic concentrations, New Phytologist, 168, 551-558(2005).
  39. Raab A., Willium N. P., A.A. Meharg and J. Feldmann. Uptake and translocation of inorganic and methylated arsenic species by plants. Environ. Chem. 4:197-203(2007).
  40. Rahman, M.A. and H. Hasegawa. Review on Aquatic arsenic: Phytoremediation using floating macrophytes. Chemosphere 83: 633-646 (2011).
  41. Rahman, M.A., H. Hasegawa, K. Ueda, T. Maki, C. Okumura and M.M. Rahman. Arsenic accumulation in duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.): A good option for phytoremediation. Chemosphere 69: 493–499(2007).
  42. Rahman, M.A., H. Hasegawa, K. Ueda, T. Maki, and M.M. Rahman. Influence of EDTA and chemical species on arsenic accumulation in Spirodela polyrhiza L. (duckweed). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 70: 311–318 (2008).
  43. Ramesh Singh, D.P. Singh, Narendra Kumar, S.K. Bhargava and S.C. Barman. Accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in soil and plants from fly ash contaminated area. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31:421-430(2010).
  44. Robinson, B., Kim, N., Marchetti, M., Moni, C., Schroeter, L., van den Dijssel, C., Milne, G., Clothier, B. Arsenic hyperaccumulation by aquatic macrophytes in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Environ. Exp. Bot. 58, 206–215(2006).
  45. Smith A.H., Lingas E.O. and Rahman M. Bull. World Health Organization 78, 1093 (2000).
  46. 35 million (3.5 crore) people facing arsenic contamination-Poor Mitigation Activities. http://www.sosarsenic. net/english/latest.html, (2005).
  47. Snyder, K.V.W. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes). J. U.S. S J W P, Volume 1. (2006).
  48. Sultana, R. and Kobayashi, K. Potential of barnyard grass to remediate arsenic-contaminated soil. Weed Biology and Management, 11: 12–17 (2011).
  49. Sultana, R., Zaman, M.W. and Islam, S. M. N. Interaction of arsenic with other elements in arsenic hyperaccumulating weeds. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 4(2):211-217(2006).
  50. The Daily Amar Desh, Nirapod panir obave Arsenic atonke Nalitabarir ordhek jonogosti-(Crisis of safe drinking water among the half population of Nalitabari upazila due to Arsenic contamination), The daily Bengali newspaper of Bangladesh. Amar Bangla Page (2nd December 2011).
  51. Tchounwou P.B., A.K. Patlolla, J.A. Centeno. Carcinogenic and systemic health effects associated with arsenic exposure-a critical review. Toxicol Pathol 31. 575-588 (2003).
  52. Tlustos, P., Balik, J., Szakova, J. and Pavlikova, D. The accumulation of arsenic in radish biomass when different forms of arsenic were applied to the soil. Rostlinna Vyroba Czech University of Agriculture, 44(1): 7-13(1998).
  53. Tu C., L.Q. Ma, B. Bondada. Arsenic accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake and its utilization potential for phytoremediation. Environ. Qual. 31, 1671–1675 (2002).
  54. Vamerali, T., Bandiera, M., Mosca, G. Field crops for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated land: A review. Environ. Chem. Lett. 8, 1–17(2010).
  55. Welsch, F. P., Crock, J. G. and Sanzolone, R. Trace level determination of arsenic and selenium using continuous-flow hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS). In. B. F. Arbogast (ed.). Quality assurance manual for the Branch of Geochemistry, U. S. Geological Survey. U. S.A., pp.38-45(1990).
  56. WHO (World Health Organization). Arsenic in drinking water URL: http/www. who. Int/inf-fs/en/fact. 210. Hotmai1(1999).
  57. Williams PN, Islam MR, Adomako EE, Raab A, Hossain SA, Zhu YG, Feldmann J, Meharg AA. Increase in rice grain arsenic for regions of Bangladesh irrigating paddies with elevated arsenic in groundwaters. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 4903–4908(2006).
  58. Zaman, M. W., Shariful, I. M. and R. M. Mokhlesur. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soils by naturally grown weeds. J. Agrofor. Environ. 2 (1): 123-126 (2008).
  59. Zhu YG, Sun GX, Lei M, Teng M, Liu YX, Chen NC, Wang LH, Carey AM, Deacon C, Raab A et al. High percentage inorganic arsenic content of mining impacted and nonimpacted Chinese rice. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 5008–5013 (2008).
  60. Zhu Y.G. and Rosen B. Perspective for genetic engineering for the Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated environments: from imagination to reality? Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 20:220-224(2009).