International Journal of Environmental Protection          
An Open Access Journal
ISSN: 2226-6437(Print)      ISSN: 2224-7777(Online)
Frequency: Annually
Editorial-in-Chief: Prof. Kevin Mickus,
Missouri University of Science & Technology, USA.
Granulated Coal Ash-Used Filter Design for Efficient Removal of Nutrient Salts
Full Paper(PDF, 7132KB)
To date, granulated coal ash (GCA, a by-product from coal fired-power plants) has been widely used for improving sediment and water quality, such as removals of nutrient salts and hydrogen sulfide. These removal capacities of GCA lead us to consider that GCA can be used as a filter material in wastewater treatments. This study is aiming at examining the potential of using GCA as a filter material in wastewater treatments. One of our objectives is to examine how to use GCA for efficient removal of nutrient salts. Another objective is to propose filter design and operation of using GCA for removing nutrient salts effectively. Laboratory experiments were conducted under different conditions, such as different concentrations of nutrient salts and retention times. The experimental results showed a higher removal rate of ammonium ion when polluted water was retained in GCA filter compared to the circulating polluted water through the GCA filter. This was observed when the retention time shorter than 180 min. However, the removal rate was similar when the retention time was longer than 180 min. A higher solution pH in the retention condition was considered to partly contribute to the higher removal rate. Moreover, the absorbed quantity increased with an increase in the concentrations of nutrient salts. This pointed out that the removal of nutrient salts by GCA depends on the concentrations of nutrient salts present in the solution. According to these results, design of GCA filter and its operation were proposed. The GCA filter was divided into two different parts. The polluted water was retained in the first part for 90 min, then discharging to the second part for 90 min-retention. Compared with the filter without division (180 min-retention), 1.33-fold increases in NH4+ and 1.55-fold increases in PO43- removals were obtained owing to our proposed filter design and operation.
Keywords:Granulated Coal Ash; Filter Design; Removal; Nutrient Salts; Retention
Author: Narong Touch1, Hiroki Takata2, Manaka Okabe2, Yuki Morimoto2, Tadashi Hibino2
1.Department of Bioproduction and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan
2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima-Ken, Japan
  1. R. C. Joshi and R. P. Lothia, “Fly ash in concrete: production, properties and uses,” In: Advances in concrete technology, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, vol. 2, 1997.
  2. U. Bhattacharjee and T. C. Kandpal, “Potential of fly ash utilization in India,” Energy, vol. 27, pp. 151-166, 2002.
  3. F. Andreola, M. I. Martín, A. M. Ferrari, I. Lancellotti, F. Bondioli, J. Ma Rincón, M. Romero, and L. Barbieri, “Technological properties of glass-ceramic tiles obtained using rice husk ash as silica precursor,” Ceram. Int., vol. 39 pp. 5427-5435, 2013.
  4. M. Arm, J. Vestin, B. B. Lind, A. Lagerkvist, D. Nordmark, and P. Hallgren, “Pulp mill fly ash for stabilization of low-volume unpaved forest roads — field performance,” Can. J. Civ. Eng., vol.41, pp. 955-963, 2014.
  5. S. S. Banerjee, M. V. Joshi, and R. V. Jayaram, “Removal of Cr(VI) and Hg(II) from aqueous solutions using fly ash and impregnated fly ash,” Sep. Sci.. Technol., vol. 39, pp. 1611-1629, 2004.
  6. T. Hemalatha, M. Mapa, G. Neenu, and S. Saptarshi, “Physico-chemical and mechanical characterization of high volume fly ash incorporated and engineered cement system towards developing greener cement,” J. Clean Prod., vol. 125, pp. 268-281, 2016.
  7. R. P. Singh, A. K. Gupta, M. H. Ibrahim, and A. K. Mittal, “Coal fly ash utilization in agriculture: its potential benefits and risks,” Rev. Environ. Sci. Bio., vol. 9, pp. 45-58, 2010.
  8. S. Wang, “Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 42, pp. 7055-7063, 2008.
  9. C. Belviso, “State-of-the-art applications of fly ash from coal and biomass: A focus on zeolite synthesis processes and issues,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 65, pp. 109-135, 2018.
  10. S. Asaoka, T. Yamamoto, and K. Yamamoto, “A preliminary study of coastal sediment amendment with granulated coal ash-nutrient elution test and experiment on Skeletonema costatum growth,” J. Japan Soc. Water Environ., vol. 31, pp. 455-462, 2008. (in Japanese)
  11. S. Asaoka, T. Yamamoto, I. Yoshioka, and H. Tanaka, “Remediation of coastal marine sediments using granulated coal ash,” J. Hazard Mater., vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 92-98, 2009.
  12. N. Touch, N. Kinjo, T. Hibino, and K. Nakamoto, “Effective use of granulated coal ash in sediment microbial fuel cells,” J. Jpn. Soc. Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 1327-1332, 2016. (in Japanese)
  13. K. H. Kim, T. Hibino, T. Yamamoto, S. Hayakawa, Y. Mito, K. Nakamoto, and I. C. Lee, “Field experiments on remediation of coastal sediment using granulated coal ash,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 132-137, 2014.
  14. T. Yamamoto, K. H. Kim, and K. Shirono, “A pilot study on remediation of sediments enriched by oyster farming wastes using granulated coal ash,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 90, pp. 54-59, 2015.
  15. JSCE Annual Reports, II-168, 2010.
  16. T. Saito, K. Miyakuni, K. Hino, J. Hiraoka, and T. Hibino, “Effects of granulated fly ash to recycle sediment in area devastated by Tsunami,” J. Jpn. Soc. Civ. Eng. Ser. B3 (Ocean Eng.), vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 102-107, 2012. (in Japanese)
  17. K. Mizumoto, K. Nakamoto, N. Touch, and T. Hibino, “Chemical characteristics of alkaline environment restoration materials,” J. Jpn. Soc. Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 1477-1482, 2015. (in Japanese)
  18. R. Boopathy, S. Karthikeyan, A. B. Mandal, and G. Sekaran, “Adsorption of ammonium ion by coconut shell-activated carbon from aqueous solution: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 20, pp. 533-542, 2013.