World Academic Publishing    

Hydrological Analysis and Trans-boundary Water Management of the Blue Nile River Basin
Full Paper(PDF, 363KB)
The main objective of the research is to set a transboundary water management system for the Blue Nile River Basin (within its 16 sub-basins) as well as to create calibrated satellite rainfall data for the Blue Nile River Basin (BNRB). Within the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model, the simplified rainfall-runoff option has been adopted to determine the runoff of the BNRB, using calibrated satellite rainfall data and adjusted monthly evapotranspiration factors. The WEAP model has been calibrated for the period (1980-1995) and validated for the period (1996-2010) where the simulated and observed flows have been compared at Eldeim, Giwisi, Hawata and Khartoum stations in a monthly time step yielding reasonable values. The results have effectively showed that the simulated flows are reasonable using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency criteria (r2) and the Coefficient of Determination (d) of the model performance. The research has found that unmet demands for water resources projects in BNRB may reach more than 50%, especially when considering a high priority for all water resources projects in the basin for all suggested scenarios. For a better BNRB management between Sudan and Ethiopia, it is required to define the priority order for each project within the Basin and to determine allocations of supplies and demands for these projects. The above cannot be achieved without a strong cooperation reaching between riparian countries in place that eventually lead to joint operation of the large storage structures, such as GERD, Karadobi and Mendaya dams.
Keywords:Hydrology; Mode; Transboundary Water; WEAP
Author: Mohamed M. Abbas1, Abdin M. A. Salih1, Adil M. Elkider1, Salih H. Hamid1
1.Policies and Planning General Directorate, Planning and Evaluation Director Ministry of Water Resources, Irrigation and Electricity, Sudan
  1. Abbas M. M., Towards Hydropolitical Cooperation in the Nile Basin win-win Projects between Sudan and Ethiopia to Transform Conflicts, Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich, online at, for more research see also “Environment and Conflict Transformation” Series: in the publishing house. (, 2006.
  2. Kinfe A. Nile, Opportunities: Avenues Toward a Win-Win Deal, American Water Resources Association, The Ethiopian International Institute for Peace and Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2004.
  3. Aster D. and Seleshi B., Characterization and Atlas of the Blue Nile Basin and Its Sub Basins, International Water Management Institute, January 2009.
  4. Milly M., “Mapping Actual Evapotranspiration for the Nile basin countries by the Nile Basin Initiative,” 4th Nile Basin Development Forum, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004.
  5. Wenchao S., Towards Improving River Discharge Estimation in ungauged basins: calibration of rainfall-runoff models based on satellite observations of river flow width at basin outlet. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, HESS, 2010.
  6. Tekleab S., Uhlenbrook S., Mohamed Y., Savenije H., Ayalew S., Temesgen M., and J. Wenninger, “Water Balance Modeling of Upper Blue Nile catchments using a top-down approach,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, HESS, 2010.
  7. Htt://
  8. Modes D., Land Surface Representation for Regional Rainfall-Runoff Modelling, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation Enscheda, the Netherland, 2008.
  9. Asegdew G. and Semu M., “Filling Option Assessments for Proposed Reservoirs in Abbay (Upper Blue Nile) River Basin to Minimize Impacts on Energy Generation of Downstream Reservoirs,” Open Journal of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development, Scientific Online, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar. 2014.